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Using Pupil Views to Uncover Evidence of Children’s Metacognition in Mathematics

International Journal of Student Voice

A peer-reviewed, independent, open-access journal

Pennsylvania State University

Volume 8                        IJSV                           January 2021

Using Pupil Views to Uncover Evidence of Children’s Metacognition in Mathematics

Kirstin Mulholland – Department of Social Work, Education, and Community Wellbeing, Northumbria University

 

Citation: Mulholland, K. (2020). Using pupil views to uncover evidence of children’s metacognition in mathematics. International Journal of Student Voice, 8. 

Abstract: This article investigates the impacts of using a thinking skills approach alongside pupil views templates (PVTs) in my primary classroom. This research adopted an “action inquiry” approach—combining elements of action research and case study with mixed methods, including the use of progress and attainment data; a measure of self-concept; and PVTs, to uncover evidence of pupils’ metacognition. While this case study offers some context regarding the overall research, it particularly focuses on the development of one pupil, Harry, whose metacognition is evident in the reflections upon learning he recorded on his PVTs. As such, it aims to contribute to existing literature by providing an exemplar of the reflections that can be gained through using PVTs with children and the insight that can be gained into the internal process of learning and metacognition. The case -study structure is designed to keep the two individual voices contained in this research—Harry’s, as a pupil, and my own, as a teacher-researcher—distinct and separate. They are presented in separate columns: one that contains a narrative of each case, and another that contains analysis, providing a physical separation of his voice from my own interpretation of it, enabling Harry to express himself and his experiences from his own perspective. This unconventional format is intended to propose an alternative to analyses which prioritize the interpretation of the researcher by creating space for the participants of research to express themselves in their own words.

Keywords: Thinking skills, metacognition, pupils’ perceptions of learning, pupil voice, mathematics

Introduction

This article investigates the impacts of using a thinking skills approach alongside pupil views templates (PVTs) (Wall & Higgins, 2006) in my own primary classroom. It therefore explores the power of pupil voice. While it offers some context regarding the overall research, it particularly focuses on the development of the metacognition of a specific pupil, Harry,[1] as evident in the reflections upon learning he recorded on his PVTs. Accordingly, the article begins by looking at the study design and thinking skills, before moving on to what PVTs are and how they may be used. This explanation is followed by a short discussion about involving pupils in research, after which the article focuses on Harry’s experiences in the case study and what may be learned from his articulation of them.

The structure of the case study is designed to keep the two individual voices—Harry’s, as a pupil, and my own, as teacher-researcher—distinct and separate, further emphasizing pupil voice. They are presented in two separate columns: one of which contains a narrative of each case, and the other contains analysis. This structure provides a physical separation of his voice from my own interpretation of it, enabling Harry to express himself and his experiences from his own perspective. By creating space for research participants to express themselves in their own words, this unconventional format is intended to propose an alternative to analyses which prioritize the interpretation of the researcher.

The wider context for this article is that, despite the growing body of work surrounding the importance of pupil voice, my experience as a teacher echoes suggestions that pupil consultation in England remains largely tokenistic (Byrom et al., 2007; Mitra, 2018); confined to issues relating to school management (Bland & Atweh, 2004); or, as Rudduck and Flutter (2000) would have it, to “the charmed circle of lockers, dinners and uniform” (p. 83). Yet the principal business of schools is, of course, education, and there is evidence to suggest that, when consulted, pupils have many valuable insights to offer (Busher & Cremin, 2012; Fielding, 2001; Lodge, 2005; McIntyre et al., 2005; Rudduck & Flutter, 2000).

Given how important consumerism in education currently is, it remains surprising, and somewhat incongruent, that the importance of pupil consultation is not more widely acknowledged (Rudduck & Flutter, 2000). This inconsistency has led some to suggest that pupils’ exclusion from the decision-making process may stem from a belief that pupils are not sufficiently mature or knowledgeable to make valuable contributions in this field (Lodge, 2005). Thus, more than 30 years after the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) affirmed that any child “who is capable of forming his or her own views should have the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting that child” (UNCRC, 1989), there remain those who argue that it has had little impact upon children’s day-to-day experiences of our education system (Lodge, 2005).

In this article, I indicate ways in which pupils’ immersion in their classrooms means that they are “expert witnesses” (Lodge, 2005, p. 129) with insider perspectives which are not always accessible to those adults working with them, whether as teachers or researchers (Bland & Atweh, 2004). The article also connects with the work of Fielding (2001), Kellet (2005), and Lundy et al. (2011), who argue vehemently in support of involving pupils actively as participants in, rather than simply the subjects of, research, with some suggesting that increased emphasis on child-led research could lead to a shift in power dynamics toward increased control and influence on the part of pupils, and away from adult-dominated representations of educational realities (Grundy, 1998; Kellet, 2005).

The very process of engaging pupils in research, and of seeking their opinions, conveys a powerful message regarding the extent to which pupils’ perspectives are valued, with Grundy (1998), for example, suggesting that this approach demonstrates “parity of esteem” (p. 44) between pupils and adults. Perhaps unsurprisingly, there is evidence to suggest that consulting pupils with regard to their learning can increase motivation and engagement (Levin, 2000; McIntyre et al., 2005) and that participating in research may lead to a cycle of increased confidence and self-esteem (Kellet, 2005). Furthermore, taking part in the process of education research may also hold the potential to increase pupils’ metacognitive knowledge and skillfulness. By engaging in education research, children necessarily consider teaching and learning and how these practices can be improved and developed: They exercise metacognition.

In accepting the right of pupils to be heard, as well as the potential value of their contribution, it is important to consider how their voice is expressed and represented. For example, Bland and Atweh (2004) describe the indignation of one group who felt that their work had been overedited, asserting that “it’s meant to be in our words, that people like us can understand and not like a university assignment” (p. 344). In much of the literature, researchers’ voices, as authors, is privileged, recounting the research from their perspective and in their own words. Accordingly, there is a very real danger that pupil voice can be subverted or carefully edited and redacted in order to carry the messages of adults (Hart, 1997).

To conclude, this article aims to contribute to the literature relating to pupil voice in two ways. First, this article outlines my own learning about the development of children’s metacognition as a result of “listening” to pupils’ views of the learning ongoing in our mathematics lessons as, together, we adopted a collaborative, thinking skills-based approach to teaching and learning. Second, this article aims to present an alternative structure for sharing the views of the pupils themselves, presenting the views of one child, Harry, in his own words, in their entirety, and as distinct and separate from my own voice, as teacher-researcher.

Study Design and Thinking Skills

Pupils’ apparent inability to recognize the “how” or “why” of mathematics learning is particularly potent given the perception of success in mathematics as a “supernatural” power, which Picker and Berry (2000) suggest is a consequence of “the general invisibility to pupils of the mathematical process, for with the process hidden, mathematical facility looks more like a power than an ability which anyone has the possibility to learn” (p. 88). There is a considerable body of evidence emphasizing the importance of teaching pupils to think through mathematics to gain deeper understanding of it, evident in the work of Boaler (2006), Jansen (2008), and Westwood (2011), as well as in Wright and Taverner’s (2008) Thinking Through Mathematics. Work conducted by the National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics (NCTEM) also emphasizes the importance of developing “deep knowledge,” which has formed the basis of the Teaching for Mastery program established in England in 2015, which had been used in more than 5000 schools by July 2019 (NCTEM, 2019).

My experience of working as a primary school teacher has taught me that, while pupils are often enthusiastic and eager to please, many had little understanding of the “why” in mathematics. They could not explain their thinking to me, and I believe this challenge was because they did not themselves understand the mathematical activities in which they were engaged and thus could not reasonably be expected to succeed in them. As pupils could not explain their thinking, I took this difficulty as both my starting point and my goal. I achieved this goal by adopting a thinking skills approach to teaching and learning. There is a wealth of evidence documenting the positive impact of thinking skills approaches on a range of pupil outcomes (e.g., Higgins et al., 2005; Hu et al., 2010; Robson, 2006), with some sources suggesting that the effect of thinking skills “is relatively greater than most other researched educational interventions” (Higgins et al., 2005, p. 4).

Thinking skills approaches are characterized by a focus on developing pupils’ ability to identify, plan, and evaluate their thinking and learning. They therefore represent a shift away from procedural learning, in which pupils follow a set of instructions without understanding the justification behind the selection and use of a particular method, toward discussion surrounding the “why” and “how” of learning. Yet, from my perspective as a teacher, there are many education professionals in schools who refer to “doing thinking skills,” as if they were a set of tasks which, when completed, tick a metaphorical box to say that thinking skills have been “completed.” In contrast, I believe that a thinking skills approach is more akin to a philosophy of learning, a set of beliefs about the conditions which best encourage pupils to engage with their learning. These beliefs include an emphasis upon the development of metacognition through the use of open tasks, with many ways to be successful; review of the strategies used to successfully complete the tasks; the role of the teacher as facilitator rather than instructor; opportunities for pupils to discuss and collaborate; pupils’ active engagement in the learning process; and a supportive classroom environment.

Making Thinking Visible: The Use of PVTs

Any investigation into pupils’ thinking proposes its own challenges because thinking is an internal, and therefore largely invisible, process (Ritchhart & Perkins, 2008). As a result, it is difficult both to observe and to discern how best to encourage its development. In this scenario, the active, informed understanding and engagement of the pupils is vital, not only according to their rights as key stakeholders or in acknowledgment of the potential value of their contribution, but also through sheer pragmatism. We cannot encourage children to become metacognitively aware and skillful without encouraging them to reflect upon learning. More simply, we cannot gain insights into their thoughts and experiences without asking them to articulate and share them with us, thereby rendering them “visible” (Hattie, 2012; McGregor & Gunter, 2006; Wright & Taverner, 2008).

To this end, I employed PVTs. Originally described by Wall and Higgins (2006), PVTs are specifically designed to gain information on pupils’ experiences and beliefs relating to teaching and learning, “but also to go further into the realms of metacognition (thinking about the process of learning)” (Wall, 2008, p. 26). Thus, PVTs provided an opportunity for children to express, as openly and honestly as possible, their experiences of mathematics lessons. This approach allowed insight into interactions between pupils, and between the pupils and adults working within our classroom. They also provided a means of understanding children’s thinking about their mathematics learning, or even about matters unrelated to school, in order to explore whether this was affected by the introduction of the thinking skills approach.

The PVTs used in this investigation included a space for pupils to draw themselves participating in a mathematics lesson, along with thought and speech bubbles. The images that pupils generated provided a further level of insight into their experiences of mathematics learning, and was inspired by Picker and Berry’s (2000) use of children’s drawings to investigate perceptions of mathematicians. The argument in favor of using images to stimulate discussion is supported by the work of those such as Harper (2002), who argues that “the parts of the brain that process visual information are evolutionarily older than the parts that process verbal information” (p. 13) and that, as a result, “images evoke different deeper elements of human consciousness …  [evoking] a different kind of information” (p. 13).

The speech bubble was used to investigate factors external to the pupils (Wall, 2008), such as the behavior and interactions of those around them, as well as the realities of undertaking a particular task in a specific learning environment. When completing the PVTs, the children were therefore asked to record the things they said in the course of the lesson that they had just experienced. While I tried to emphasize that anything that had been said by any person in our classroom could feature in these speech bubbles, the pupils and I also made a shared list of the types of speech that could be included, such as questions asked by group members, shared answers and discussions about working, and requests for classroom equipment such as pencils and rulers. An example of a completed PVT can be found in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Example of a Completed Pupil Views Template

I was particularly careful to stress that I wanted these representations to be as accurate as possible. The children and I therefore discussed the inclusion of conversations which were not related to learning (for example, about out-of-school activities), again emphasizing that the PVTs formed part of my learning about our lessons, rather than regular schoolwork. I tried to make it very clear that pupils would not be reprimanded for recording conversations which did not focus upon learning but that, on the contrary, I was interested in gaining an honest picture about what children thought and spoke about during lessons. While it is, of course, possible that some children felt obliged to censor their responses, others seemed to welcome this opportunity to be honest about their experiences, and sometimes their frustrations, of working with others. This response led to the inclusion of comments such as “I hope [Name] will message me on Minecraft all about the cheats and building ideas, Hmm? Arrrr [Name]!!!”

The thought bubble was used to encourage pupils to articulate internal processes (Wall, 2008), which could consist simply of their opinions about particular activities, but could also include more developed responses to demonstrate pupils’ thinking about the learning process itself. This thought bubble was particularly important in light of my aim of investigating the development of pupils’ metacognition and, again, I emphasized to pupils that any thoughts they had during lessons, whether related to learning or not, could be included in this section of the PVTs. This task was not without potential challenges: Asking pupils to record their thinking in writing required pupils to draw upon appropriate language, which meant that only aspects of their thinking that they were able to recognize and describe could be captured (Wall et al., 2009).

This issue encompasses two separate potential limitations. The first relates to children’s capacity to articulate and reflect upon their thinking, while the second is associated with children’s subsequent ability to then record it in writing (Wall et al., 2007). There is some debate surrounding the age, and extent, to which children may be capable of metacognition. Flavell (1979), for example suggests that the metacognition of young children is limited, and even more recent studies maintain the “accepted wisdom” that metacognitive skills do not develop before 8 to 10 years of age (Lai, 2011, p. 15). However, the work of those such as Leutwyler (2009), Wall (2008), and Whitebread et al. (2009) has demonstrated evidence of metacognition in children working in the early years age range (between 3 and 5 years of age). While these findings may appear encouraging, it is important to heed Lai’s (2011) warning that metacognition may not develop in a linear fashion, but that instead development may consist of “a shifting distribution in the frequencies with which more or less adequate strategies are applied, with the inhibition of inferior strategies as important an achievement as the acquisition of superior ones” (Kuhn, 2000, p. 179). Thus, it seems that, simply because the 9- and 10-year-old pupils featured in this study may be considered old enough to be capable of metacognition, it does not necessarily follow that developing metacognition will be a straightforward process.

With regard to any potential limitations caused by pupils’ capacity to record their reflections in writing, it is important to acknowledge that PVTs have been successfully used with children as young as 5 years of age (Wall et al., 2013). Although there are some suggestions that having to write may limit pupils’ responses, Wall et al. (2007) found that responses are often more focused and succinct as a result. I also believe that the format of the PVTs, in using speech and thought bubbles to elicit children’s written responses, encourages relatively short pieces of text, often single words or short phrases, which are less demanding for pupils to produce. The National Curriculum (Department for Education [DfE], 2014) program of study for English specifies that by Year 5 (when pupils are between 9 and 10 years of age), “Pupils should be able to write down their ideas quickly” and that “Their grammar and punctuation should be broadly accurate” (DfE, 2014, p. 41). Writing significantly longer texts, often in the form of extended narratives or non-fiction genres, was part of our regular classroom routine. Because this research was conducted with my own class, I was very familiar with the children’s capabilities in writing, and for any children who found writing challenging, I was able to act as scribe, following the advice of Wall et al. (2007). Furthermore, in an attempt to alleviate any potential anxiety which may have been felt as a result of recording ideas and reflections in writing, I emphasized to children that the PVTs would not be “marked” in the usual way, and that they did not need to conform to the usual conventions for writing in terms of spelling and grammar.

It is also important to acknowledge that it could be argued that because PVTs encourage pupils to reflect upon their thinking, they cannot provide true evidence of metacognitive thought. To refute this assertion, I draw upon Wall (2008) and her argument that

evidence from a template where an individual has declared knowledge of metacognitive process, while also expressing that they are consciously using them in their learning would surpass any subjective evidence from observation completed by a third person. These pupils not only have the knowledge about metacognitive skills and process, but they also know how they are using them in different learning contexts. (p. 32)

Metacognition is an internal process which is not usually visible to external observers. I did consider several methods of attempting to capture pupils’ metacognition, but because of the very nature of metacognition, each came with its own flaws. Gascoine et al. (2017), for example, decry the use of self-report methods such as rating scales or questionnaires because of their reliance upon pupils’ reading and literacy skills.

Perhaps the most obvious means of assessing metacognition—or, at least, the method which I first attempted—was to observe pupils at work in the hope of observing metacognitive behaviors and charting any development or change in these throughout the course of research. However, this method, too, was not without complications, with Lai (2011) and others observing that a potential lack of awareness surrounding children’s cognitive knowledge and monitoring could result in significant underestimation of metacognitive capacity. The practical considerations of scrutinizing video data also rendered this method of investigating metacognition problematic. Initially, I attempted to record a focus group of six volunteers from the focus cohort as they worked, but this approach both reduced the number of pupils whom it was possible to observe and, additionally, the time required to transcribe and scrutinize the resulting interactions was prohibitive when combined with the joint demands of my job as class teacher and teacher-researcher.

In contrast, PVTs had the advantage of facilitating the collection of data from the whole of the focus cohort. Furthermore, the resulting data were already in a written format, thus eliminating the need for transcription prior to analysis. I also felt that PVTs were superior to those methods which relied upon the interpretations of an external observer because of the opportunity they provided for pupils to articulate their own thinking and record this independently. While these templates, by their very nature, require pupils to reflect upon their learning, thereby engaging in metacognition, I believe this particular method is nevertheless preferable to any attempt by a third party (myself, perhaps, as teacher-researcher) to interpret pupils’ thoughts and reflections.

I would also argue that, far from being a disadvantage, the pedagogic nature of the PVTs was beneficial to this study. The PVTs served a dual purpose in prompting pupils to reflect upon lessons, providing a form of data collection which allowed me insight into pupils’ metacognition, but also as a teaching tool which prompted them to do so. Crucially, this act of asking pupils to complete PVTs to search for evidence of metacognition may have been instrumental in encouraging them to engage in this type of thinking (Freire, 1972). Thus, it may be that the use of PVTs provided not just a window for external observers to examine pupils’ thinking, but rather a mirror to reflect pupils’ thoughts and actions, enabling the children themselves to consider and develop their own “thinking about thinking.”

Each template was completed after a randomly selected lesson, but with hindsight this approach was a limitation of this research, as the lessons on which the PVTs were focused were not always the most interesting for children to reflect upon. This decision was, I think, influenced by my subconscious bias toward the scientific, and an assumption that a randomly selected sample of lessons would gain a fairer insight into the development of pupils’ metacognition. It may have been more useful to select lessons according to Pettigrew’s (1990) advice that, considering the limited number of cases which can usually be studied, it is logical to select extreme situations in which the process of interest is “transparently observable” (p. 275).

Once completed, the PVTs were considered using a general inductive approach to analysis to allow interrogation of the data set as a whole, identifying trends, patterns, and areas of potential interest as they emerged, rather than being limited by a pre-determined analysis structure (Thomas, 2003). This freedom was particularly appealing as it parallels neatly with my belief that education research is most valuable when it develops in response to specific challenges (Hiebert et al., 2002). Similarly, I believe that these data have been most informative precisely because the details contained within the data sources have directly shaped their analysis.

Involving Pupils in Research

The use of PVTs ensured that, rather than relying upon inferences or assumptions made by myself as an external observer, pupils were able to directly communicate their experiences of mathematics lessons, fulfilling their fundamental right according to the UNCRC (1989). This approach also granted me insight into their perceptions and, therefore, permitted clearer understanding of how to further enhance teaching and learning to suit their needs. I also believe that actively involving pupils in this way created a space for them to share their views as active participants as they themselves reflected on the lessons in which we engaged and shared their experiences and perceptions of them.

The involvement of pupils in research is thus not only ethically valid, but is also supported by the work of Kellet (2005), Lundy et al. (2011), and Pascal and Bertram (2009). It is also consistent with my aim to create a more equitable learning community within the classroom that we shared. To allow pupils the freedom to opt out of submitting any responses that they did not wish to share, I used two trays during each data collection period. This method of opting in or out was decided upon in discussion with the children themselves. At the outset of the research, having discussed the optional nature of including their responses in research, the children and I deliberated how best to achieve this accommodation. It was during this discussion that some of the children proposed the system of using two trays, one labeled simply “Yes,” and the other “No.” They suggested that “Yes” could be used to indicate that pupils were happy for me to include their responses in the research into teaching and learning in mathematics, and that “No” would show that they wished to opt out of submitting their views, instead choosing to keep them private.

During our discussion, the focus cohort decided that this strategy was the most straightforward means of sorting responses to include and exclude from research. Each time these trays were used, their use was recapped and explained to the pupils, and they had the opportunity to ask any necessary questions. Furthermore, in an attempt to minimize any pressure which children may have felt to submit their views against their inclination, these trays were not monitored by an adult, so pupils were able to choose which tray in which to place their completed data collection tool without feeling as though they were being watched or monitored as they did so. It was also emphasized that submitting views was separate from our usual work in class, that this was voluntary, and that there would be no repercussions for non-submission, in an attempt to reduce any concerns children may have felt about potential bias resulting from their decision not to submit their views. Because the children themselves suggested this method, I felt confident that they understood it and had a certain degree of ownership over it. I also feel that giving pupils the opportunity to share their own ideas regarding this aspect of the research process allowed me to engage them, even in a very small way, as the kind of co-researchers described by Lundy et al. (2011), in which children assume a key role in identifying questions as well as strategies to ensure effective participation for themselves and their peers.

In the end, the majority of pupils were willing—even enthusiastic—to share their views about teaching and learning in mathematics. Throughout the research, many children expressed very positive responses to the discussions we had about our teaching and learning. Perhaps unsurprisingly, they appeared to enjoy being consulted! When asked about their experiences of the PVTs, 84.84% of pupils (28 of the 32 pupils present that day) indicated that they enjoyed using the template, with 45.45% (15 pupils) citing the opportunity to share their ideas about learning as the reason for their enjoyment. A typical response explained, “I like doing this because it is fun and I like to share my ideas.” I believe that comments of this nature suggest the pleasure that pupils felt in being offered the opportunity to share their views and reflections surrounding teaching and learning and, as a result, to influence the teaching they experienced. I believe that this pupil feedback could also perhaps be seen as evidence of the repeating cycle of increasing confidence and self-esteem which Kellet (2005) believes results from involving pupils actively in research.

The Case: Harry

Throughout the course of this research, it became apparent that, when encouraging pupils to reflect upon their learning, some pupils—such as Harry—demonstrated deeper levels of reflection than their peers, commenting more frequently and more reflectively on the strategies and mathematical methods which helped them achieve their learning objective. Flyvbjerg (2006) suggests that, when attempting to maximize insight into a given phenomenon, the selection of random or representative cases may not be the most appropriate or efficient strategy, precisely because those average cases are unlikely to prove the richest or most interesting sources of information. This suggestion is true of Harry: He intrigued me precisely because he stood out from his peers, rather than being representative of them.

I therefore propose that Harry’s case should serve to illustrate the insight that can be gained into pupils’ metacognition through use of PVTs as part of a thinking skills approach to teaching and learning. This case thus acts, not as a “truth,” but instead aims to be informative and to provide a starting point for practitioners to consider their own action inquiry research in their own classroom contexts (Rudduck, 1985; Hall, 2009). The task of generalization is therefore shifted from the researcher to the reader; in other words, it must be the responsibility of the reader to determine whether the research is relevant to their own situation.

The structure of this case study is designed to keep the two individual voices contained in this research, both that of Harry, as a pupil, and my own, as teacher-research, distinct and separate. These ‘voices’ are presented in two separate columns in the series of tables included throughout the remainder of this section, beginning with Table 1, which introduces this format. The column on the left contains a narrative of each case, with Harry’s thinking as evidenced in his PVTs included in full in bullet point form, along with my own anecdotal notes. The column on the right contains my analysis. I wanted Harry to express himself and his experiences from his own perspective, in his own words, and I felt that the column format provided a physical space in order to separate his voice from my own interpretation of it, reducing the likelihood of “over-editing” or misinterpretation. A small number of key words, chosen to summarize a significant point in the findings, have been marked in bold in each section of the Analysis and Discussion column for ease of interpretation for the reader.

Table 1

Harry: A Case -Study

Findings Analysis and Discussion
Each of Harry’s completed PVTs, together with a description of each focus lesson, as well as analysis of the responses, are included below. It is important to note that the data contained in the PVTs should not necessarily be expected to form part of any kind of progression. They are based upon disparate lessons, each requiring pupils to use a wide range of different mathematical knowledge and skills. These differences in focus and format rendered any attempt to chart a development in the pupil’s thinking problematic and, as a result, it is perhaps more helpful to view the templates as insights into Harry’s thinking at each individual point in the research progress. Inclusion of the PVTs in their entirety conforms to Mishler’s (1990) interpretation of the role of the exemplar, in which the text is presented in full so that it is accessible to others to allow for external assessment of the reliability and trustworthiness of the analysis, as well as the extent to which any findings could be generalizable to other contexts.

December

Harry completed the template provided in Figure 2 about a word-problem lesson in which pupils worked in mixed-attaining teams of three or four to solve a range of challenging multistep word problems for all operations in a range of contexts including time, money, and measures.

Figure 2

Completed Pupil Views Template: December

This template (Figure 2) suggests that, even at the outset of research, Harry reflected upon his learning and was able to identify some of the ways in which he learned most effectively. Indeed, eight of the 12 comments contained on the template are indicative of metacognitive knowledge or skillfulness. For example, Harry made the following comments:

  • I like it when we do it as a year group before the lesson because it helps me and I get people’s ideas.
  • I like it when the teacher comes around this help me feel more confident.
  • I have made progress when I get explained about it.
  • I feel I understand more because my friends and teacher help me.
  • I think the Numeracy wall helps me because it reminds me and shows what I need help on.
  • I feel confident by using RUCSAC and reading and working it out.
  • I also feel confident because members of my table kept me right and explained when I was stuck but now I am confident.
  • Team member helping to explain [drawing of a light-bulb].

Table 2 contains further exploration of the findings, analysis and discussion relating to this template.

Table 2

Narrative and Analysis: December

Findings Analysis and Discussion
These comments demonstrate that Harry was able to identify some of the ways in which he worked most effectively very early in the research process. However, I believe this finding raises some questions. Was Harry already metacognitively skillful, and did completing the PVTs simply provide a vehicle for expressing his learning preferences? It is certainly possible: These templates were specifically designed to provide a stimulus for discussion about learning. Furthermore, the thinking skills approach itself is intended to provide opportunities for pupils to discuss their learning, so regardless of whether Harry was metacognitively aware prior to the introduction of the thinking skills approach, the fact that he was clearly reflecting upon his learning at this point in the data collection process can be seen as evidence that, in providing these opportunities both during lessons and in the process of completing the PVTs, it has been successful. One of the principal criticisms of this particular data collection tool is that because PVTs encourage pupils to reflect upon their thinking, they cannot provide true evidence of metacognitive thought. Wall (2008) argues that because metacognition is an internal process, evidence from PVTs is superior to any external, third-party observation. Furthermore, although pupils were asked to record their thinking, they were not prompted with regard to the nature of it, thus any metacognitive skillfulness (for example, where Harry moved beyond this specific lesson in order to generalize about the ways in which he learns most effectively) is entirely spontaneous.
It is encouraging to note that, at this point in research, Harry was clearly appreciative of the opportunity to collaborate with his peers and to discuss ideas and learning. Indeed, in six of the eight comments cited above, Harry specifically referenced the sharing of ideas, or an explanation from a team member or teacher as crucial in developing confidence, making progress or helping him when “stuck.” Again, this  reference demonstrates the success of the thinking skills approach from an early point in the research process, confirming that, for Harry at least, opportunities for talk and collaboration were instrumental in helping him to feel more confident in his mathematics learning. This finding is unsurprising. There is a wealth of literature extoling the advantages of creating opportunities for talk and collaborative working, and Jansen (2008), Boaler (2006), and Westwood (2011) also emphasize the importance of this practice for mathematics in particular.   

February     

Harry completed the template featured in Figure 3 about a very different lesson, featuring a game-based lesson on probability during which pupils worked in mixed-attaining pairs to calculate the probability that the next card would be higher or lower, inspired by ITV’s 1980s game show, Play Your Cards Right.

Figure 3

Completed Pupil Views Template: February

Harry included just five units of text on this template:

  • This game was fun.
  • I know, I am thinking 6/7, 3/5, 5/7, 1/8, 5/10, 7/7, 4/4, 7/7, 7/8, 5/10.
  • I am getting the hang of this.
  • I feel I have made progress and I like it being with a partner.
  • It helps me when we discuss as a class group first it helps me understand the lesson and in a small group with the teacher.

These text units are discussed in greater detail in Table 3, below.

Table 3

Narrative and Analysis: February

Findings Analysis and Discussion
I believe the comparative scarcity of detail included on this template emphasizes that some lessons are better than others in encouraging reflections of this type, and that this kind of simple and repetitive task perhaps did not require the same complex thinking or collaborative teamwork as the previous lesson. In addition, although I had originally intended pairs to work together to produce the probabilities, the pupils interpreted the activity as a contest in which they competed against one another to win the “game” by working out the most probabilities correctly. I believe that this competitive spirit curtailed collaboration, as pupils sought not to support one another to develop understanding for the shared benefit of the team, as in the previous collaborative problem-solving lesson, but rather to beat the other in order to emerge victorious. Upon reflection, it is important to admit that the central activity of this lesson was not one which was based upon thinking skills principles. This lesson provided rather mechanical practice of representing probabilities as fractions. The pupils enjoyed it, but it was not backed with the level of discussion which more customarily characterized our lessons. This lesson was—like each of the lessons about which the PVTs were completed—selected at random. I believe that Harry’s response raises the issue of whether randomly selecting focus lessons was the most useful strategy here, or whether it would have been beneficial to again select those sessions in which metacognition was likely to be most evident (Pettigrew, 1990).
Of the five comments listed above, only the final two contain reflections surrounding ways in which Harry felt that he learned most successfully. It is heartening, however, to note that these comments echo Harry’s belief that working collaboratively aided the development of his understanding. However, in light of the competitive manner in which pupils interpreted this task, it is unclear whether Harry was one of those who did work collaboratively, or whether he had simply learned that I, as teacher-researcher, believe that working with others helps children to learn more effectively, and whether he therefore gave the answer he believed I wanted to hear. Following my analysis of the previous template it is interesting to note that while Harry acknowledges that he enjoys working with a partner and feels that this practice helps him make progress, he does not again refer to an improvement in his confidence. This difference could suggest that Harry did not find this lesson sufficiently challenging, or that, while enjoyable, collaborative working did not here materially contribute to his learning.

March

Harry completed this template (Figure 4) following a lesson in which pupils worked collaboratively in a mixed-attaining team of three or four pupils to solve one of the “Mathematical Challenges for Able Pupils” produced by the Department for Education and Employment (2000). This challenge required pupils to use their understanding of inverse operations to work out how many of each different type of fish a customer bought with £20.

Figure 4

Completed Pupil Views Template: March

Harry included six units of text on this template. Four of these comments are of particular interest:

  • This is so more easy because when I’m stuck my team can explain and help me work the problem out.
  • Well I know that if we use the inverse that could help us figure out what amount of each fish was bought from £20.
  • Being in a group helps me and I can say what I think.
  • Yous is this it?[1]

[1] Please note that “yous” is a plural form of “you” commonly used in the Geordie dialect which is native to Newcastle, England.

Table 4

Narrative and Analysis:

Findings Analysis and Discussion
Two of these text units, responses 1 and 3, again refer to Harry’s continued belief that collaboration supports his learning in mathematics. I also find the second response interesting as it demonstrates the extent to which Harry could explain why a particular strategy was needed, suggesting his deeper understanding of the mathematics involved. This response is encouraging as it is precisely this deeper understanding of why specific methods were needed for particular situations that originally drove my desire to adopt a thinking skills approach. Furthermore, this explanation is given in one of the speech bubbles, showing that it formed part of the group’s discussions, and could suggest that explanations of this type constituted part of their regular interactions. I also find Harry’s fourth response interesting as it confirms that he was using the other members of his group as sounding boards to confirm his own conclusions about his work. I believe that comments of this type make it very easy to understand why Harry felt so much more confident when working with a group. This second response is a clear acknowledgment that Harry knows which strategy he requires to solve this particular problem. I believe this response constitutes a marked departure from his earlier templates in which he describes working with others to find out which strategies to use. Here, Harry knows himself which strategy he needs and is confident enough to say so.

This shift could indicate the impact of the thinking skills approach in making these processes and decisions very visible to pupils through use of routines such as the debrief, thus avoiding any sense that success in mathematics is akin to a supernatural or magical power, rather than learned knowledge and skill (Picker & Berry, 2000).

Also of interest is the illustration of one of the conversations that took place during the lesson between myself, as class teacher, and Harry’s group. I am pictured asking what appears to be a singularly unhelpful question: “Can you think what you [have] done wrong?” Perhaps surprisingly, one group member is shown with a speech bubble replying “OK, yes,” while another has a thought bubble with a complicated-looking series of calculations. Yet another pupil has a thought bubble which states “Now I get it,” suggesting that my rather oblique question actually helped the pupils further their understanding. I find this response particularly interesting as, although in the first comment listed above Harry expressly states that he believes that discussions with teachers help him to develop his understanding, the conversation he has depicted in fact shows me asking his group to work out for themselves where they made a mistake and why this error occurred. This links to a key element of a thinking skills approach in which the teacher assumes the role of a facilitator rather than instructor. Here, in working collaboratively, the pupils themselves have actually been the agents of their own development in understanding, although they perhaps felt more confident as a result of my presence and questioning. Upon first reading the literature relating to thinking skills it struck me that, in order to fully embrace the approach, an overhaul of the roles of both teacher and pupil were required. This need is particularly evident in Hu et al.’s (2010) assertion that “learning to learn means taking over from the teacher the control and management of your own learning and thinking” (p. 537).

This episode could suggest that Harry and I have begun to alter classroom dynamics in order to promote true reflection on the part of the pupils in place of rather blind and passive acceptance of what the teacher says (Watson, 2001).

May   

Harry completed this final PVT (Figure 5) about a very practical lesson in which pupils worked in mixed-attaining groups of three or four to investigate which carrier bag was most suitable for me to shop for a whole school celebration. The groups first identified strength as the most important characteristic and then designed an investigation to find the strongest supermarket carrier bag.

Figure 5

Completed Pupil Views Template: May

This lesson was more practical than the previous lessons and engendered a different type of responses. Harry included eight text units on his completed template. Two of these comments contain straightforward recall of details from the lesson: “Our bag is now holding 17kg,” and “This bag holds most.” However, the remaining six responses are more interesting:

  • I wonder when it will break.
  • I feel confident by the teacher teaching us on the carpet.
  • If I know 500g + 500g = 1kg we could do 2 500gs because there is no more 1kgs.
  • Working in teams helped me more today.
  • I understand and I’m confident.
  • Oh I understand now my group’s explanation helps me.

Table 5 contains discussion of this PVT data.

Table 5

Harry’s Pupil Views Template: May

Findings Analysis and Discussion
The first of the text units reveals speculation, a type of thinking associated with the ‘Creating’ level of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy (Krathwohl, 2002) that has not been evident in any of the templates Harry previously completed. This type of thinking suggests that Harry was beginning to make predictions, and was thinking more deeply about the task he was engaged in during this lesson. However, this may also merely be a by-product of this type of lesson; the children were asked to find the strongest bag and were taught when carrying out investigations, particularly during Science lessons, to make predictions and hypotheses. Certainly, this task bears a stronger resemblance to our scientific investigations than it does to our customary mathematics lessons. The probable success of this lesson in inspiring thinking of this nature again causes me to question my decision to randomly select lessons for the PVTs. This was done in an attempt to improve reliability, yet it would perhaps have been more useful to identify specific lessons so that pupils were asked to reflect upon experiences, or extreme cases, which were more conducive to the exercise (Pettigrew, 1990).

 

Harry’s third comment is also of interest as he once again provides an explanation of his reasoning. However, in contrast to the explanation included in the template from March, this explanation in given in a thought bubble, suggesting that it was part of Harry’s personal, independent reasoning about the task, and it is unclear whether this was ever shared with the rest of his group. Finally, comments two, four and six once again reiterate Harry’s belief that discussing his learning with others helped him to make progress both in his understanding and confidence. It is interesting that after a notable absence in his second and third templates, it is only in this final template that Harry once again makes explicit reference to his confidence.

Conclusions

Harry’s PVTs demonstrate:

  • He was metacognitively aware, repeatedly referring to the learning situations in which he felt most confident and successful.
  • His comments did not materially change during the data collection period, thus failing to reveal any kind of development in Harry’s metacognition, although they do show that he was actively aware of himself as a learner and some of his learning preferences.
  • Harry clearly and consistently stated that working in a group helped him to make progress, to understand when he was stuck, and to feel more confident.

This final point is key: Such strong statements provide clear evidence that, for Harry at least, the use of a thinking skills approach achieved what was intended. Specifically, by giving pupils more opportunities to work together, they developed their mathematical ability and confidence in the subject. While I was initially disappointed by the non-developmental nature of the responses indicating Harry’s metacognition, this outcome should perhaps have been anticipated. PVTs are specifically intended to encourage pupils to reflect upon their thinking, and therefore it is to be expected that pupils would do so from the outset.

While it may be possible to argue that the data obtained from Harry’s PVTs is in some ways discouraging because of the lack of clarity surrounding the development of metacognition, for me, these data demonstrated the potential utility of PVTs in uncovering evidence of metacognition itself. This use could provide a valuable means of assessment to determine pupils’ current range and use of strategies in order to inform and enhance future teaching and learning. For me, as a teacher-researcher, the PVTs used in this study provided valuable insights into Harry’s perceptions of mathematics lessons and how these may have been influenced by the thinking skills approach. I valued the details that these templates gave me about what actually took place: the conversations pupils had, who was participating and who was not doing their fair share, and the feedback about the tasks themselves and whether Harry found these sufficiently challenging. This information allowed me to discover the realities of my classroom context as they really were, from the “expert witnesses” (Rudduck & Flutter, 2000) best placed to describe and share these.

Metacognition is, as I have previously acknowledged, an internal process, and thus any attempt to render it visible is necessarily subject to potential difficulties in terms of the accuracy of representation—not just on the part of anyone seeking to interpret the information gathered, but also on the part of the children themselves in their attempts to accurately record their thinking. However, as imperfect as this approach may have been, by representing Harry’s views in his own words, I believe that PVTs succeeded in providing insight into his thought processes, allowing me to study these for whatever may emerge. I also believe that this format, encompassing three distinct forms of data— including thoughts, speech, and children’s own representations of learning—perhaps provided greater scope for pupils to reflect upon their own experiences of learning than may have been recorded through a single format alone, such as the type of narrative interview employed in many similar studies (Bland & Atweh, 2004; McIntyre et al., 2005; Rudduck & Flutter, 2000).

Including each of the four PVTs completed by Harry in their entirety provided a coherent description of his experiences throughout the research process. I believe that adoption of this particular format proposes an alternative method for representation of pupil voice in reducing the impact of the interpretation and mediation of the researcher—in which the researcher edits the views to be included by selecting relevant quotations—and thus holds the potential to avoid the accusations of “over-editing” levelled at some previous researchers, such as Bland and Atweh (2004), while still providing space for pupils to express themselves “in our words, that people like us can understand and not like a university assignment” (p. 344). Representation in this form reduces the impact of potential bias by transparently presenting the findings of this particular aspect of research in an informative manner, so that readers may judge for themselves the significance of the data. However, more significantly, I believe that creating a physical space for pupils’ contributions to be “heard” in their entirety goes further toward creating that “parity of esteem” (Grundy, 1998, p. 44) between participants which is necessary for truly transformative communication, acknowledging the fundamental nature of pupils’ contribution as co-researchers.


Discussion Questions

  1. What is the potential of pupil views templates as a means of rendering pupils’ experiences and thinking more visible? To what extent did this data collection tool achieve this objective here? Could this tool be useful to explore other contexts and situations?
  2. To what extent can Harry be considered as a co-researcher? How could this perspective have influenced the development of metacognition?
  3. What can Harry’s experiences of the Thinking Skills approach tell us about the potential of an approach of this nature more widely? Which conditions would need to be in place to create a similar impact in a different context?
  4. To what extent did my position as a teacher-researcher influence this study? Is it necessary to be positioned within the classroom to gain insights of this nature upon pupils’ experiences?
  5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the position of teacher-researcher for issues relating to both pedagogy and research, for example for objectivity?

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[1] Please note that “yous” is a plural form of “you” commonly used in the Geordie dialect which is native to Newcastle, England.

[SK1]Please insert table title and make a reference to the table in the text that precedes it (after the list of Harry’s comments) to explain/summarize the purpose of the table.

Incorporating the Voices and Insights of Students with Disabilities: Let’s Consider Our Approach

International Journal of Student Voice

A peer-reviewed, independent, open-access journal

Pennsylvania State University

Volume 8                        IJSV                           January 2021

Incorporating the Voices and Insights of Students with Disabilities:

Let’s Consider Our Approach

Barbara L. Pazey, Ph.D. – University of North Texas

 

Citation: Pazey, B. L. (2020). Incorporating the voices and insights of students with disabilities: Let’s consider our approach. International Journal of Student Voice, 8.

Abstract: For this qualitative case study, I centered voice to discover the points of view of 33 students with an identified disability who attended two different Texas high schools. The purpose of the study was to capture the personal meanings these students attributed to their learning experiences and bring their perspectives to the fore. Drawing from my personal and professional experiences as a special education teacher, high school administrator, and inclusive researcher, I illustrate how listening to the stories of the students with disabilities whom I served motivated me to engage their voices and the voices of their friends to interrogate my own practice and stay true to a commitment I made to my students nearly 30 years ago to tell their story. To set the stage and the importance of honoring the voices and perspectives of students with disabilities, I provide a brief account of the international legislative priorities related to student voice and various arguments that have been advanced to recognize and honor the voices of every student. Next, I present the international legislation and recommendations that support the participation rights of persons with disabilities in making decisions that directly affect their lives as well as the research literature related to inclusion, student voice, and students with disabilities. An explanation of the research design and approach, including an explanation of the level at which students who participated in this study were involved, is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings. A call for the adoption of a differentiated approach to student voice research and practice that incorporates the voices of students with disabilities serves as the conclusion.

Keywords: students with disabilities, inclusive education, student voice, student rights, inclusive research

Introduction

The overall culture, including the norms, beliefs, and collective behaviors of individuals within a school “makes a difference” for the students who attend our schools (Carroll-Lind, 2018, p. 21). So, how many times have we, as educators and leaders, gone straight to our students as a primary source to discover how we can keep our teens healthy, safe, engaged, supported, and challenged? Over 25 years ago, Howe (1993) declared, “It is high time for those of us who want to improve education to stop paying more attention to schools than to kids” (p. 199). This imperative holds true today as much as it did back then. Yet despite continued calls for educators to embrace a learner-centered approach to teaching and learning, the voices, experiences, and perspectives of the student are rarely consulted when constructing such a learner-centered proposition (Lundy & Cook-Sather, 2016). In most instances, traditional student government initiatives, also known as student government associations or student councils, function as the primary voice and representation of students within our schools to “articulate and advocate for their own interests” (Charteris & Smardon, 2019a, p. 1). Although a multiplicity of student voices with diverse identities clamor to be heard, certain students tend to be excluded from the arena of student voice initiatives due to adults’ deficit views and beliefs about whether they have the ability or maturity to effect change (Brasof & Mansfield, 2018b).

Background

During my time as a high school special education teacher in two different U.S. states, I provided academic as well as social and emotional supports for students with mild to moderate disabilities (i.e., specific learning disability, emotional-behavioral disturbance, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and other health impairments such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, among others) for one class period per day. Students spoke frankly with one another about their content-area classes and talked openly about some of the difficulties they faced due to the lecture-oriented, whole-class, one-best-way approach to instruction that many of their teachers provided in the majority of their general education classes. They swapped horror stories about being called out by their teachers for giving the wrong answer, asking clarification questions, or refusing to read aloud or answer certain questions due to internal fears associated with “looking stupid” or “being found out” in front of their peers. They recounted such incidents and the various reasons for their actions in detail, while their classmates commiserated with them about how they must have felt during and after the event and shared the impact that similar experiences that they, too, encountered in some of their classes had on them and their identity.

During these discussions, different students recounted every detail of the verbal and nonverbal insinuations and/or accusatory remarks that teachers, administrators, peers, and others leveled against them. Such incidents included allegations of ineptness, laziness, lack of self-control, and intentional behaviors to do harm to the adult in charge or others. In many cases, their collective accounts concluded with an emotional diatribe of the impact such micro-aggressive words or actions had on their personal identity and belief in themselves. Granted, most of their teachers and administrators responded positively to them as individuals. Others, however, reverted to shaming behaviors (B. Brown, 2008) or, as stated by numerous students, threatened to “out them” in front of their peers, in conversations with other teachers and staff, or in private. Rather than giving a student the benefit of the doubt in regard to the student’s intent or state of mind at the time, they attributed certain behaviors and/or actions displayed by students, whether real or perceived, as confirming the accuracy of their disability classification. Every day, the students struggled to overcome, in their own minds, the negative attributions associated with the label with which they were assigned (Danforth & Gabel, 2008; Dunn, 2019; Nario-Redmond, 2020; Sperling, 2019).

As professional educators, we are tasked with getting to know our students, listening to them talk about their various experiences, and investigating how they are affected by what happens in their classrooms and schools (Liou & Rotheram-Fuller, 2019; Thiessen, 2007). My classroom provided a Cheers type of atmosphere—a safe space where “everybody knows your name” (Schmoop, 2019, para. 1), and students could express their views freely and without reprisal. For every student who entered my classroom, regardless of any of the various markers with which they identified, the one identity they shared was that of disability. As a community of learners, we listened to what different students had to say about each of their experiences or dilemmas, and then we brainstormed solutions and helped them develop potential strategies so they could strengthen their identity and self-confidence. As their classroom teacher and adult advocate, I supported them in their efforts to correct or remedy the situation on their own whenever possible. Based on students’ conversations with one another regarding who they aspired to be and their unanimous insistence on how they wished to be treated by others, notions of ability, voice, recognition, and respect seemed to matter more to them than their differences in terms of race, class, or gender. When a student achieved victory through sheer persistence and a refusal to accept the characterizations imposed on them by their defined disability and others’ perceptions, we all celebrated. When I left the classroom to pursue my doctoral degree in educational leadership in Texas, my students tasked me with a simple request: “Don’t forget to tell our story.”

The memory of their stories and accounts, and their cry to be heard, continued to resonate with me. Four years later, I fulfilled the commitment I made to my former students via an ethnographic dissertation study (Pazey, 1996), chronicling the lived experiences of six students, in grades 9 through 12, with an identified disability at Central High School (CHS, pseudonym), an urban Texas high school. During the 1995-1996 school year, CHS served as a neighborhood school to students who lived in one of the poorest areas in the district, but the school also housed a liberal arts magnet school that offered advanced courses to students across the district. While CHS students interacted with students who attended the magnet school during lunch and some of their extracurricular activities, most of the time, the students with disabilities who attended CHS were assigned to a separate “resource class” for their content-related courses or, in rare cases, attended a general education class, distinct from the magnet school.

The opportunity to spend time in these students’ lives and hear their stories altered my career plans, and over the next nine years I became a high school administrator at two similar high schools. The charge my students gave me five years earlier became my primary goal. As a school leader, however, the need to listen to students’ stories and involve them in various aspects of school governance took precedence over telling their story. Little did I know that the General Assembly of the League of Nations, an international gathering of national leaders, had crafted an argument for adults to honor the rights of children across all nations nearly 70 years earlier, the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1924).

Context and Purpose of the Study

Fifteen years later, I returned to the same geographical area where I completed my dissertation study (Pazey, 1996). In 2008, two years prior to my return, CHS was closed in accordance with the legislative mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2002), a U.S. federal law. NCLB required schools like CHS, a school with a high percentage of students from low-income families that received federal funds to provide additional resources and supports for such schools (i.e., Title I schools), to meet challenging State academic standards (U.S. Department of Education [USDOE], 2020). Title I schools such as CHS that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) via incremental percentages of academic growth on state accountability measures in reading and mathematics for five consecutive years were given the option to initiate a change in leadership and staff, close and reopen the school under a new name, and develop specific strategies designed to reverse the direction and trajectory of the school’s negative pattern of academic performance—hence the term turnaround school (Pazey, 2019). In 2009, CHS reopened under a new name, Heritage High School (HHS, pseudonym), with a new roster of school leaders, faculty, and staff.

Between 2010 and 2013, I visited two high schools located within two different school districts: HHS, an urban high school (formerly known as CHS), and Technology High School (THS, a pseudonym), a rural-suburban high school. At both high schools, I interviewed students in grades 9 through 12 with an identified disability. My intent was to discover what high school students with an identified disability had to say about their learning experiences and their overall perceptions of school. I also asked students to describe the types of school and/or classroom contexts, environments, and/or experiences that contributed to or were detrimental to their ability to learn.

To set the stage for this study and the importance of honoring the voices and perspectives of students with disabilities, I provide a brief account of the international legislative priorities related to student voice and various arguments that have been advanced to recognize and honor the voices of every student, including the voices of students with disabilities who, until recently, have been typically marginalized from such conversations (Pazey et al., 2015; Pazey et al., 2017; Pazey, 2019; Byrnes & Rickards, 2011). Next, I present the international legislation and recommendations that support the participation rights of persons with disabilities, including students, in making decisions that directly affect their lives. I also present the research literature related to inclusion, student voice, and students with disabilities. An explanation of the research design and approach, including an explanation of the level at which students who participated in this study were involved, is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings. A call for the adoption of a differentiated approach to student voice research and practice that incorporates the voices of students with disabilities serves as the conclusion.

International Legislative Priorities Related to Student Voice

Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child

In 1924, the General Assembly of the League of Nations formally adopted the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child. The Geneva Declaration (1924) acknowledged “that mankind owes to the Child the best that it has to give” (para. 1). The Declaration was the “first document dedicated to the active and distinct promotion of children worldwide” (Stornig, 2015, para. 1). Its adoption represented the first time an international audience of influential individuals in politics recognized children as “innocent and valuable human beings” worthy of being provided “special assistance, protection and guidance” by “men and women of all nations” (Geneva Declaration, 1924, para. 2). The Geneva Declaration referred to “children as symbols of the future and stressed the importance of their positive development for humanity at large” (para. 2). The signatories endeavored to incorporate the document’s principles into their national laws, but the agreement was not legally binding (Humanium, 2019).

Twenty-five years later, the League of Nations’ successor organization, the United Nations (UN), authored an expanded version of the 1924 Declaration, consisting of 10 general principles. The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959) represented an updated view on the rights of children. The overarching message of the document placed special attention on the best interests of the child in terms of equal opportunity and the development of one’s abilities.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child (1959) served as the foundation for the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989), drafted and adopted 30 years later. The text recognized students as being capable of formulating their own views about matters that directly affect their lives and acknowledged they should be granted the right to express their views. Furthermore, the UNCRC acknowledged students’ views should be respected and afforded “due weight” in proportion to the student’s “age and maturity” (Article 12(1)).

Velez (2016) problematized how “the child” is constructed within the UNCRC documents, however, noting that the text homogenizes the definition of the child as a “universal category” and causes the child to emerge “as a limited and definable category that develops linearly toward a maximization of potential” (p. 96). Such a conceptualization ignores the individual and internal characteristics of each child and the variable ways in which each child develops over time; interacts with their social contexts, networks, and environments; and/or depends on the external support of others. According to Velez (2016), the text of the UNCRC promoted the stance that every child progresses through an ideal and specific trajectory of discrete stages within predetermined timeframes, moving toward “participation, integration, and achievement of ‘their fullest potential’” (p. 103). This view contradicts the reality that children’s experiences and development, including students with disabilities, are diverse rather than uniform.

The Imperative for Student Voice       

Since the codification of the rights of children in the UNCRC (1989), student voice researchers have advanced the imperative for us to expand our understanding of the various ways in which students elect to express themselves (Cook-Sather, 2002; Lundy, 2007), consider what students have to say about how they learn (Charteris & Smardon, 2019b; Nind, 2014) and what facilitates and impedes their ability to learn (Rose & Shevlin, 2017; Ruddick & Flutter, 2004), and decipher from their testimonies and stories how they want to be viewed and treated by others (Bergmark, 2008; Dean et al., 2018; Margrain & Farrugia, 2018; McKay, 2014). Some researchers have focused on student voice and participation rights (Cook-Sather, 2014; Hart, 1992, 2008; Lundy, 2007; Fletcher, 2015; Graham et al., 2018; Kellett, 2011; Ontario Ministry of Education, 2016; Thiessen, 2007), while others have connected the benefits of honoring students’ voices to inform school leadership and education reform (Brasof & Mansfield, 2018a, 2018b; Lundy & Cook-Sather, 2016; Mansfield et al., 2018; Mayes et al, 2017; Mitra, 2006, 2009, 2018; Mitra & Gross, 2009; Rudduck & Flutter, 2004; Silva, 2003; Smyth, 2006, 2007).

Recognizing student voice remains “central to the daily schooling experience because this is where the students are” (Leiding, 2014, p. 24). When applied to today’s schools, students generally possess a strong sense of what is “fair and just” regarding how they are treated (Smyth, 2007, p. 641). They can easily pinpoint and articulate the details of events or situations that propelled or constrained their ability to advance or succeed (Caruthers & Friend, 2016; Daniels & Arapostathis, 2005; Lewis & Porter, 2007) and provide “complex and needed equity narratives” to facilitate “transformative school change opportunities” (Gonzalez, Love, et al., 2017, p. 2). When adults consult with students and afford them the space and opportunity to share their perspectives and insights in terms of how they learn and wish to be regarded and supported by others (Cook-Sather, 2014), students gain the sense their voices matter.

In terms of how adults attempt to develop a relationship with students, however, Fielding (2018) described two uniquely different value orientations and dispositional attitudes of adults and how they interact with and listen to students: the instrumental dimension and the fellowship dimension. Each dimension operates in distinctly different ways from the other, but both can enable or prohibit individuals from either side of the partnership from participating with one another and influence “the potential synergy of the joint work” (p. 75). How well the adult and student are “able to listen to and learn with and from each other” (p. 75) depends on the value orientation and dispositional attitude of the adults involved.

The instrumental dimension embodies a focus on “high performance schooling through market accountability” (Fielding, 2018, p. 75), to which many countries currently ascribe. The instrumental dimension prioritizes the requirement to reach or exceed specific and measurable targets due to an “external framework of performativity” (Fielding, 2001, p. 103). The primary rationale for encouraging student voice derives from an intent to acquire students’ insights into what they believe promotes effective teaching and learning so those in charge can document their school or district’s success in meeting or exceeding expectations in terms of accountability reform mandates or achieve “high-performance status” (Fielding, 2006, p. 306).

The other dimension, the fellowship dimension, epitomizes a “person-centered education for democratic fellowship” approach which, in turn, opens up “possibilities for intergenerational learning” (Fielding, 2018, p. 75). Teachers, students, and staff begin to rethink and redraw the parameters of possibilities, working together to extend the boundaries of what might be in terms of working together.

For students to advance in their educational careers, schools must include a consideration of the hopes and aspirations of the students themselves (Smyth, 2006). Too often, however, the pressures felt by school and teacher leaders to document increases in student achievement tend to preclude any willingness on their part to fully indulge in obtaining the input and different opinions that students wish to offer (Conner et al., 2015; Mitra, 2009). Friend and Caruthers (2015) extended these arguments accordingly: “If educators are to support the academic and affective development of all learners within a positive school culture, listening to students share their stories must be as important as analyzing quantitative measures such as standardized assessment results” (p. 14).

Student Voice on a Continuum

At various points in time, student voice researchers and advocates have developed various frameworks and models related to student voice, calling for a continuum of student participation and involvement. While each of the proposed frameworks and models promoted a hierarchical order characterized by increasingly higher levels of student participation and involvement, the involvement and inclusion of students with disabilities in student voice initiatives were not mentioned or highlighted.

Mitra (2006) categorized input received from students through student voice opportunities on a continuum from limited to substantial, represented as a pyramid. The “most common and basic form of student voice” was “being heard,” followed by “collaborating with adults” and “building capacity for leadership” (p. 7). At the basic level, students share their opinions about specific problems. When students move to the second or third level of the student voice continuum, which diminishes in frequency from level to level, students offer potential solutions to collaboration efforts with adults, or lead the charge to devise and/or enact initiatives for school improvement or reform.

Ladder of Participation

In 1992, Hart wrote an essay related to children’s participation, referencing participation as “the process of sharing decisions which affect one’s life and the life of the community in which one lives” (p. 5). Rather than depicting the various levels of student participation and voice on a continuum, he conceptualized a Ladder of Participation represented by eight progressive rungs.

Models of Non-Participation

The first three rungs of the ladder serve as “models of non-participation” (Hart, 1992, p. 9). The lowest rung of participation on the ladder is manipulation, where adults convince students to participate to fulfill their own purposes without providing children with any understanding of the issue or the consequence of their actions. When adults invoke the participation of children in indirect ways, without giving them any say in how the event is organized and in order to promote their own cause, children are participating at the second rung, decoration. Hart describes tokenism, the third rung, as giving students a voice without providing them any “choice about the subject or the style of communicating it, and little or no opportunity to formulate their own opinions” (p. 9).

Models of Genuine Participation

Hart (1992) connected the five remaining rungs to various “models of genuine participation” (p. 11). Rung four, assigned but informed, is characterized by four important requirements:

  1. The children understand the intentions of the project;
  2. They know who made the decisions concerning their involvement and why;
  3. They have a meaningful (rather than “decorative”) role;
  4. They volunteer for the project after the project was made clear to them. (p. 11)

At the fifth rung, consulted and informed, adults remain in charge, but students understand the project or process, serve as consultants, and their input is valued and “treated seriously” (p. 12). Hart refers to the sixth rung, adult initiated, shared decisions with children, as “true participation” (p. 12) because young people are invited to engage and participate in the decision-making process. The seventh and eighth rungs, child initiated and directed and child initiated, shared decisions with adults, rarely occur because, according to Hart, “adults are not good at responding to young peoples’ own initiatives” and find it difficult “not to play a directing role” (p. 14).

Ladder of Student Involvement

Fletcher adapted Hart’s Ladder of Participation and renamed the framework, the Ladder of Student Involvement. He later reinterpreted and adapted the Ladder again to “reflect the practical structure of schools today” (Fletcher, 2015, para. 4) and represent the “gradient ways students are involved throughout schools” (para. 5). Fletcher maintained Hart’s (1992) names for the first three rungs, but he renamed and characterized the five final rungs categorized by Hart as examples of true participation in terms of “meaningful involvement” (para. 10).

Information

In Fletcher’s vision of the Ladder of Student Involvement (2015), the fourth rung is information. Students may understand what is happening in school and share their perspectives, serving as key informants. However, adults remain in control and may not let students know about the outcome of their decision or why a decision was reached.

Consultation

According to Fletcher (2015), at the fifth rung, students may be consulted by adults as experts, capable of providing advice and opinions about a program or giving input about a specific process. Yet the amount of authority granted to the students is determined by the adults in charge, restricting their level of involvement.

Student/Adult Equality

At Fletcher’s (2015) sixth rung, student involvement with adults represents a “50/50 split of authority, obligation and commitment” (para. 12). The extent of continued student involvement and engagement depends on the extent to which students “experience full power and authority in relationship to each other and with adults” (para. 12).

Student-Led Action

At this level, rung seven, Fletcher (2015) suggests that students drive the action and adults offer support. In situations where adults may appear to be “indifferent, apathetic, or disregarding toward students, or students are not seen with regard to their contributions” (para. 13), students may decide to take their own action.

Student/Adult Equity

At the top of Fletcher’s (2015) Ladder of Student Involvement, rung eight, students and adults are both recognized as integral to the activity in terms of impact and level of expertise. Everyone makes a conscious effort and commitment to work through any barriers that may exist and establish “healthy, whole relationships with each other while moving forward through action and learning” (para. 14), leading to “equitable involvement” (para. 14).

It should be noted that the frameworks and models proposed and advanced by Hart (1992), Fletcher (2015), and Mitra (2006) excluded any discussion on behalf of students with disabilities. In similar fashion, in international discussions leading up to the need to recognize and honor students’ voices, initial and follow-up calls to embrace an inclusive model of student voice that included students with disabilities students with disabilities were rare (Farrell, 2000).

Linking student voice to the underlying agenda of the UNCRC (1989), Lundy and Cook-Sather (2016) suggested that those in authority “not exercise power in a way that undermines a person’s right to be treated with dignity and equality” (para. 9). Such a “rights-respecting pedagogy” urges us to (a) respond to the diverse makeup of students within our schools and classrooms, (b) seek their input on “what helps them learn” (para. 37), and (c) afford them the opportunity to “contribute to and actively participate in their own and others’ learning and the realization of their potential” (para. 38). Yet the life experiences of students with disabilities can be much different than the experiences of those without disabilities (Biklen, 2000).

International Legislative Priorities Related to Inclusion, Disability, and Student Voice

Twenty years after the UNCRC (1989) was ratified (albeit not by the United States), Byrnes and Rickards (2011) posed a question that did not appear to be discussed when the UNCRC was adopted: “Are the views of students, regardless of their ability or disabilities, worthy of inclusion in the educational arena?” (p. 25). Drawing from the work of Beresford (1997) and Middleton (1999), Byrnes and Rickards (2011) conjectured that the failure to solicit input from students with disabilities could have been due to prejudicial and discriminatory judgments made by adults, suggesting that some may have perceived students with disabilities as “ineffective informants” or lacking in their ability to “make worthwhile comment” (p. 26). Fortunately, conversations concerning the need to develop an international framework that incorporated and honored the input of youth with disabilities in the determination and design of their quality of life and the type of education they received had begun to emerge (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 1994).

Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education

Five years after the UNCRC (1989) was ratified, over 300 individuals, representing 92 governments and 25 international organizations, met in Salamanca, Spain, with the objective to promote the principle of “inclusive education” and enable “schools to serve all children”—especially students with “special educational needs” (UNESCO, 1994, p. 1). In the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education, delegation members reaffirmed their commitment to the principle of “Education for All” and recognized “the necessity and urgency of providing education for children, youth and adults with special educational needs within the regular education system” (p. 2). They encouraged governments to include these individuals when planning and making decisions “concerning provisions for special educational needs” (p. 3).

United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Following in the footsteps of the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) 12 years later, a different delegation of individuals gathered to draft the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD, 2006) which was put into force by the UN on May 3, 2008. Many current U.S. federal and state laws and policies correspond with the UNCRPD, including the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and subsequent ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA, 2008), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004), and were viewed by some as meeting or exceeding the requirements and stipulations of the Convention (Blanchfield & Brown, 2015).

Due to the UNCRPD’s international influence and wide-ranging impact, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2019) welcomed the convention, calling it a “historic human rights treaty which provides a moral compass for action at national and international levels” (para. 1) because it aligned with their mission to “promote the human rights of people with disabilities” (para. 2). As the first human rights convention of the 21st century, on the first day the UN opened the UNCRPD for signatures, over 82 countries signed, representing the largest number of signatories on the opening day of any convention (Hacker, 2017).

The preamble to the UNCRPD (2006) consists of 25 statements that reaffirmed, recognized, recalled, emphasized, considered, highlighted, realized, and/or expressed a concern and conviction relevant to the rights of persons with disabilities. The following statements from the preamble (UNCRPD, 2006)  apply to a philosophy of inclusion for all, and particularly individuals with disabilities, in terms of student voice:

  • Recognizing the valued existing and potential contributions made by persons with disabilities to the overall well-being and diversity of their communities and that the promotion of the full enjoyment by persons with disabilities of their human rights and fundamental freedoms and of full participation by person with disabilities will result in their enhanced sense of belonging…(p. 2);
  • Recognizing the importance of persons with disabilities of their individual autonomy and independence, including the freedom to make their own choices (p. 2);
  • Considering that persons with disabilities should have the opportunity to be actively involved in decision-making processes about policies and programmes, including those directly concerning them (p. 2); and
  • Recognizing that children with disabilities should have full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with other children. (p. 2)

The intent of any international policy or initiative that, on paper, elevates the visibility and voices of students with disabilities should represent more than a political maneuver to quell the outcry of individuals who advocate on behalf of vulnerable or marginalized populations. The gap between a rights-based policy and its implementation must be addressed so that students with disabilities are included more prominently in practice (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2016). Yet despite the human rights agenda and claims expounded within the UNCRC (1989), the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994), and the UNCRPD (2006), few educational professionals have taken the time to listen to what students, particularly students with disabilities, are trying to tell them (Keefe et al., 2006; Ludlow, 2011; MacArthur et al., 2018; Margrain & Farrigia, 2018; Pazey et al., 2015, 2017; Pazey & DeMatthews, 2019). International researchers, primarily outside the United States, have conducted studies using student voice in various contexts of inclusive education (Ajodhia-Andrews, 2016; Carroll-Lind, 2018; Dimitrellou & Male, 2020; Gonzalez, Hernandez-Saca, & Artiles, 2017; Herz & Haertel, 2016; Messiou, 2018; Rose & Shevlin, 2017; Veck, 2009). Still others have written extensively about students with disabilities and participation rights applied to school improvement and reform (Callus & Farrugia, 2016; Cefai & Cooper, 2010; Cooper, 1996; Gillet-Swan & Sargeant, 2018; Hajdukova et al., 2016; Nind, 2014). Considering the legislative imperative advanced by each of these international declarations to listen to students, including students with disabilities, Byrnes & Rickards (2011) challenge us, as student-voice researchers, with this question: “[W]hy, then are the voices of students with disabilities given less attention than the voices of their peers?” (p. 26).

Rationale for Incorporating the Voices and Insights of Students with Disabilities

To authenticate the significance of various student experiences, student voice efforts must strive to garner input from a broad array of students, representing students of diverse backgrounds and abilities (Defur & Korinek, 2010; Kozleski & Smith, 2009; Silva, 2003), not just students of wealth and privilege (Silva, 2003). Until recently, however, certain marginalized student populations, such as students with disabilities, have rarely been consulted, and their lived experiences and perceptions of school and learning have rarely been given voice (Gonzalez, Love, et al., 2016; O’Hair et al., 2000; Pazey et al., 2015, 2017; Pazey & DeMatthews, 2019).

Pearce and Wood (2019) spoke to the divisions that can occur when certain students are denied “the opportunity to empower themselves” (p. 121) and are silenced because “they don’t fit the dominant discourse and academic aspirations of their schools” (as cited in McIntyre et al., 2005, p. 155). Hence, student voice initiatives tend to be carried out with students who “fit within particular ideals of a good student” (Pearce & Wood, 2019, p. 121), rendering silent the voices of students with disabilities who may be “difficult to hear” (p. 121) due to discriminatory, coercive, or hegemonic forces. When schools do not offer spaces for every student to express themselves, students may choose to resist any attempts to assist them in their learning, alienate themselves from school authorities, or disconnect from school altogether (T. M. Brown, 2017; Emdin, 2016; Jeffers, 2017; Taines, 2012). Yet the same students who tend to be “excluded or disempowered by the school system” (Pearce & Wood, 2019, p. 121) possess the same desire to be heard, honored, and respected as those students who are selected to speak.

The practice of “including the excluded” requires individuals to ask different questions, challenge old assumptions, think outside their comfort zone, and move beyond the “privileged perspectives” of those who tend to hold positions of power (Cerecer et al., 2013, p. 220). Keefe et al. (2006) agree, advancing students with disabilities as the real experts on learning. Listening to students’ voices, including students with disabilities, has been justified by a number of researchers for various reasons:

  • Students provide an alternative source of knowledge and expertise due to their unique insider perspective of school culture and climate (Bland, 2011; Cooper, 1996).
  • Investigations into issues concerning students need to represent the experiences and viewpoints of every student (Walmsley & Johnson, 2003) since students who may not “be succeeding under current conditions are often the most important voices that need to be heard” (Mitra, 2009, p. 821).
  • The determination of whether a policy or practice is effective can only be achieved by communicating with the students who are most directly affected (Keefe et al., 2006).
  • After students voice their concerns and suggestions, they should be allowed to engage in future conversations so their views can be incorporated and transformed into the school’s policies and practices (­­­­­Cefai & Cooper, 2010).

To authenticate the significance of various student experiences, input must be garnered from students with multiple backgrounds and abilities (Carroll-Lind, 2018; Defur & Korinek, 2010; Kozleski & Smith, 2009; Silva, 2003). Yet, students’ differential experiences should not be attributed to them as individuals as much as to a society that promotes certain beliefs about what is acceptable and establishes certain conditions for living out one’s life that contribute to the creation of those differences in the first place (Callus & Farrugia, 2016). Applied more narrowly to the educational arena, such research should not be premised on the view that students with disabilities have “needs that are ‘special’” (Barnes & Sheldon, p. 237). Rather, one should focus on an alternative model of disability that recognizes their needs are similar to any child’s but are not being met by the current educational system.

Do students with disabilities agree with our current models of schooling? Can their input assist us in understanding the challenges they face and the social supports they seek most from us, as educators, so they can thrive, both in and out of school and beyond? Bourke et al. (2018) address the importance of including a diverse profile of youth in research to determine what works best for them, both as individuals and as a whole. Taking such a collective and inclusive approach can contribute to our efforts to create a “positive school and classroom environment” (p.183).

Method

To gain an understanding of the types of school experiences and/or contexts that high school special education students might identify as beneficial vs. detrimental to their ability to learn in school, a qualitative case study research design and approach for each school site was used (Yin, 2014). My approach drew from phenomenological methods, centering on student voice, to discover each participant’s point of view, capture the personal meanings they attributed to their learning experiences in school and the classroom, and bring the perspectives they derived from their own experiences to the fore (Smith et al., 2009).

School Sites

In 2010 and 2012, I revisited the same urban high school where I conducted my dissertation study (Pazey, 1996) and interviewed 12 students with an identified disability. In 2013, I visited a suburban-rural high school in the same geographical area and interviewed 21 students with an identified disability. Across both high schools, I interviewed a total of 33 students. Both high schools followed the New Technology High School model of project-based learning and adhered to a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum focus.

Selection and Description of the Student Participants

Criteria used to select the 12 students (six in 2010 and six in 2012) at HHS were identical to the criteria used for the previous study conducted at CHS, the same high school, in 1995 (Pazey, 1996). The principal asked the school counselor and lead special education teacher to collaboratively create a list of potential student participants. They then spoke with each of the students about the purpose of the study to determine their initial interest. They provided a list of students who agreed to participate in the study. At THS, the rural-suburban high school, the principal told 22 students with an identified disability about the study, and all but one student agreed to participate. Of the 33 students, the male to female student breakdown was 24 and 9. According to race, 12 students were Black, 11 were White, 9 were Hispanic, and 1 student was Hispanic-Black. Most of the students were classified with a learning disability in reading or mathematics (26), followed by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (4), emotional-behavioral disorder (2), and autism spectrum disorder (1).

Table 1

Student Participants Drawn From Heritage High School and Technology High School

Students Grades Gender Ethnicity Identified Disability
Students with an identified disability Grade 9 through grade 12 Male (24)

Female (9)

Black (12)

White (11)

Hispanic (9)

Hispanic-Black (1)

Learning disability (26)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (4)

Emotional-behavioral disorder (2)

Autism spectrum disorder (1)

Approval to conduct the studies at both high schools was obtained from the university’s Institutional Review Board and the principal of each high school. Both parents and students were assured that all responses would be held in strictest confidence, and their identity would remain anonymous. Permission for each student to be involved in the study was obtained from the students’ parents. Students were given the opportunity to make their own decision about whether they wished to participate and signed a student assent form to indicate their agreement. Students were informed of their right to withdraw at any time from the study and refrain from answering any question if they elected to do so. None of the students withdrew, nor did they voice any concerns with the interview questions or process.

Data Collection

Six focus-group interviews and 15 one-on-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted across both schools. The interview questions were derived from the same interview protocol that was used in the 1995 dissertation study (Pazey, 1996). At both high schools and for both the individual and focus-group interviews, students were asked the same interview questions:

  1. Tell me about what you like about school or some of your classes. Why?
  2. Tell me about what you don’t like about school or some of your classes. Why?
  3. What kinds of teachers and/or learning environments do you like best? Can you give me a description?
  4. What kind of teachers and/or learning environments do you like least? Can you give me a description?

All interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. To validate the data, I returned to both schools to meet with each student so they could review their transcripts and offer any additional insights they wished to share. None of the students with whom I was able to meet provided any additional insights, nor did they make any changes, additions, or deletions to the transcripts. During my second visit, the principal and lead counselor at both schools assured each student that their input would be used to inform them and the school faculty in terms of future topics for professional development related to classroom instruction and the overall school culture and classroom climate.

Data Analysis

An inductive coding process was used to allow the themes to emerge from each of the interview transcripts (Hesse-Biber, 2017). During the first round of coding, I searched for short-word phrases and initial categories (Saldaña, 2016) related to the different types of learning experiences within the classroom or the school; the overall perceptions they described of those experiences, either positive or negative; and any other factors or constructs they believed to be instrumental or detrimental to their ability to learn. Significant statements were highlighted and listed separately and were then combined into themes. Specific incidents, individuals, conditions, situations, and contexts in which each experience occurred were also noted. Themes and subthemes that emerged from students’ responses at both school sites were nearly identical. Therefore, the following narrative merges the descriptions and insights shared by students at both high schools.

Social and Emotional Supports

When asked to identify what they liked about school, nearly every student’s immediate response was “spending time with my friends.” Situated within the arena of accountability mandates and neoliberal reform policies mandated by NCLB (2002) and the Texas Education Agency (TEA), the state education agency responsible for interpreting and enforcing the regulations contained within NCLB, administrators and teachers primarily attended to the daily academic rigors of school (Pazey, 2019; Pazey & DeMatthews, 2019; Pazey et al., 2017). Each of the students whom I interviewed, however, valued their school and classroom experiences more in terms of ­­­­the types of social and emotional supports they received to help them learn. To underscore the importance of this priority, nearly every student talked about their teachers and administrators as well as the school culture, classroom configurations, and the conditions for learning that most supported their social and emotional needs.

Get to Know Us and Help Us Believe in Ourselves and Our Ability to Learn

For most of the students, the attitudes of their teachers and administrators and the way they made them feel about themselves took precedence over any other aspect of their school lives. Teachers who took the time to get to know them, expected them to perform beyond what they believed represented their own capabilities, and “cared about them being successful” stood out in their minds.

A senior male student who admitted to “being highly dyslexic” recounted how his math teacher forced him to think and did not allow him to use his disability as a crutch. She helped him discover his strengths and encouraged him to draw upon them. In the process of assisting him in understanding mathematics, she also helped him overcome what he “may not be as good at” and taught him “how to advocate for myself.” In his words, “By the middle of my sophomore year, I finally threw my disability crutch out the window and I started walking on my own two feet and using my mouth to speak up for myself and using my mouth to tell people like, ‘I don’t understand this, can you help me?’”

Several students conceded that they needed to be more independent despite their desire to lean on their teachers and others for assistance instead of learning how to think for themselves.

  • “Teachers aren’t always going to help you and so, you’re going to have to go discover things on your own time. Just getting that sense of being independent allowed me to think for myself and not have others think for me.”
  • “She makes you think about stuff and explain what you are thinking. She takes time to understand where you are coming from instead of discounting what you have to say. She cares enough about what you need and what you think is important—what you want to know—both in school and in life and is willing to help you think things through and prepare for it.”

Others talked about teachers who connected with them and, based on their own stories and efforts to locate where they were in terms of their understanding, enabled them to engage with what they were learning.

  • “He’s the coolest teacher because he can connect with the students and when he teaches, like, everything he says, it’s so simple. He helps you out like, just right there, where you’re at and makes a connection so we want to learn.”
  • “Teachers that are telling us more about themselves and how they might have struggled. You know, like showing that they can be closer to you more than a teacher.”
  • “Teachers who tell stories, so we can relate to what they are talking about.”

A male student who also served as his school’s student body president referred to his high school principal in terms of his willingness to get to know each student individually and treat them with respect. At the same time, the student noted, the principal expected them to take responsibility for their own behavior:

He helps everybody. He understands their problems. He knows most of all students, so he knows how they will act when they get in trouble. So, that’s what I like. He still gives you a consequence. But the fact is, he knows most every student, how their reactions are, and never quits believing you can be the best.

School Culture as “Family”

Students at both high schools touted the importance of a family-like school atmosphere, a culture that adopted a “non-judgmental” approach toward each student and a place where “if you need to talk to someone, they are there.” Technology High School embedded a “circle time” where the entire student body as well as the school’s faculty and staff assembled in the school’s gymnasium. According to one of the senior high school students, the principal facilitated a weekly meeting to “talk about events and issues and whatever’s going down in the school.” Rather than following a top-down approach to making decisions, the principal and teachers involved the student body, giving them an open invitation to voice their opinions and give input into critical decisions. If students preferred to remain anonymous, they could speak in confidence with their teachers or peers or express their thoughts in writing.

A sophomore student described the culture of this school in this way: “This school has the expectation that every student will be supported. No disrespect. Everyone feels safe to learn and be themselves.” Contrasting this experience to his middle school, where he encountered frequent incidences of bullying, he added, “You don’t really have that at this school, and that’s what I really like about it. You have a much more student-friendly environment amongst the students, and I feel safer here than I did in middle school.”

A different student likened the school to the overall parameters that his parents established for him and his siblings at home, characterizing the overall culture of the school as both “strict and lenient,” but in different ways:

Like, we have the freedom to do kind of what we want to do, but we have those base guidelines that keep us on track. But overall, in my opinion, it’s more efficient, smoother, and creates a better atmosphere to learn.

Classroom Configurations

Nearly every student emphasized the importance of the social nature inherent in their ability to learn, expecting the teacher to first “explain what they needed to know and allow the class to learn together.” They also stressed the belief that they should be allowed to choose whether they wanted to work independently or with their peers, “depending on the work.” For mini-assignments and projects, they preferred to work alone or one-on-one with the teacher. In such instances, they highlighted the need for smaller class sizes, ranging from 15 to 20 students. With fewer students, they could “talk to teachers and one another and get to know one another,” and the teacher would be able to “come around to individual students and have more one-on-one time” and “break thinks down” to make sure they understood what they were learning. When assigned to larger class sizes, they lost their ability “to focus” due to students “playing around” and “other distractions” that kept them from getting their work done. In such cases, they “got blamed for not finishing your work” which created additional stress for them.

For larger projects and assignments, however, they underscored the advantages of working in a group. Students at both high schools referenced collaboration, communication, teamwork, and networking opportunities as strengths and critical aspects to their ability to capitalize on their strengths, make improvements, and be successful—in terms of school as well the future.

  • “Projects are more like hands on, how we work in groups. You get to know more people and stuff and it helps you figure out—like, you can do more and better work, like teamwork like in the real world.”
  • “When you work with others, it gives you more of a chance to get to know, like, what you are working on because they might know something you don’t know. So, you can help each other out.”
  • “For projects, I like working with others because there are multiple parts that we need done. We take one part we are good at and one we know least so we can improve on it. We assign each other homework so we don’t lose our focus. We set guidelines and make sure everyone does their part.”

Conditions for Learning that Support Students’ Social and Emotional Needs

When asked to describe what they liked most and least about their school and classes and to explain why, every student either proffered a list of dos and don’ts or expounded on specific events that contributed to or deprived them of their ability to learn. They repeatedly spoke about their previous lived reality in which no one had ever taken the time to hear what they had to say about school. Nevertheless, their willingness to openly discuss the social and emotional aspects and priorities they deemed to be instrumental to their ability to achieve success in school in terms of how we should treat one another, in general, warrants our attention, both as educational professionals and leaders and student voice advocates and researchers.

  • “Don’t look at a student and then, just make an assumption about that student. Take time to really get to know the student even if the student is rough around the edges.”
  • “If a student asks a question, respond in a respectful tone, not in a sarcastic way where the student feels dumb for asking the question.”
  • “If we are expected to work in a group with others, please don’t require me to work with a person who is bossy or who does not do their work.”
  • “Because I have reading problems, please don’t make me read aloud in front of my peers. I would prefer to discuss ideas.”
  • “Provide the opportunity for the student to turn in work and then, after it is graded, if more work needs to be done, give the student a chance to work with the teacher one-on-one and redo or revise the work for a second chance.”
  • “Be clear and consistent in what you expect of students. Don’t let students get away with not doing their work and then give them extra credit at the end and get off scot-free from not doing their work all along. In the real world, you don’t get extra credit. You can’t say, ‘Oh, I forgot to submit this, so I’ll submit it now. Just forget that it was late.’”
  • “Allow for late work if you understand that a student might have a bad internet connection or does not have internet at home. If the only time we can work on our work is at school, be willing to work with us and help us.”
  • “Don’t show us how to do it but help us figure it out on our own or be there to answer questions. Help us establish our comfort zone.”
  • “Whoever is in charge should always make sure that the students come first, that the students have a place to work, the students are encouraged to work, that teachers do not give up.”
  • “It shouldn’t matter what others think about your school or the students in the school. It should matter more about what students can do in the classroom; what teachers and administrators do in their jobs; and how much that counts and affects each student’s future.”

Discussion

Like all other students, students with disabilities possess “knowledge and unique insights into the educational system” (Hajdukova et al., 2016, p. 207). The need to explore the schooling experiences of students with disabilities as told from their perspective cannot be ignored. Yet their voices “are not necessarily recognized by educationists, practitioners, or policymakers” (Hajdukova et al., 2016, p. 207).

Each of the students in this study had stories to tell about their experiences in school and how they wished to be treated by adults. How others viewed them in terms of ability and whether they honored them by listening to what they had to say stood out as a major contributor to whether they connected with the academic aspects of both the classroom and school. Individuals who took the time to get to know them, treated them with respect, helped them learn how to advocate for themselves, and taught them to think for themselves stood out in their minds. The adults who recognized them for their capabilities, regardless of the topic or content, also made a difference in their lives.

Making connections with adults who truly cared about their success overrode the specifics of what typically takes precedence for those who place a higher premium on student achievement and academic outcomes. Descriptors such as “safe to learn,” “no disrespect,” “nonjudgmental,” and “working with others” seemed to underscore the learning conditions the students preferred the most. From a student voice perspective, the following comments should give us, as student voice advocates and researchers, pause.

  • “…using my mouth to speak up for myself…”
  • “… capitalize on their strengths…”
  • “… takes time to understand where you are coming from instead of discounting what you have to say…”
  • “… help you think things through and prepare…”
  • “… respond in a respectful tone, not in a sarcastic way…”

When conducting a focus-group interview with four students, one student confessed, “No one has ever taken the time to ask us about what we thought about school.” Reflecting back on my experiences as a former special education teacher and high school administrator who was determined to interrogate my own practice based largely on what I learned from students, his confession forced me to question whether I was staying true to the commitment I made to my students nearly 20 years ago. Am I incorporating the voices of marginalized student populations such as students with disabilities into my research agenda and practice?

One student’s statement, “Don’t look at a student and then, just make an assumption about that student. Take time to really get to know the student even if the student is rough around the edges” provides a perfect segue for me to challenge all of us, as student voice researchers, advocates, and practitioners, to ask ourselves: Can we, as a community of student voice advocates, lay claim to a “rights-respecting pedagogy” (Lundy & Cook-Sather, 2016, para. 37) if we fail to recognize or involve the voices of students with disabilities who represent one of our most vulnerable student populations? Can students with disabilities who serve as “data sources” or “active respondents” contribute to adults’ efforts to “listen to and learn with students in schools” (Fielding 2018, p. 74), or should our calls for student voice and advocacy focus more on progressing toward the highest level on the student voice continuum by acquiring “substantial” (Mitra, 2006, p. 7) input from students? Is reaching the highest rungs on the ladder of participation (Hart, 1992) and involvement (Fletcher, 2015) worthy of our efforts when we may be in danger of excluding the voices and insights of students with disabilities?

Participation can occur at various levels, ranging from “asking the disabled child for their views about specific aspects of their lives to their being actively involved in making major decisions” (Callus & Farrugia, 2016, p. vi), an assertion which is enshrined in both the UNCRC (1989) and the UNCRPD (2006). In the spirit of the Disability Rights Movement, “Nothing about Us without Us” (Charlton, 2000, p. 3), Callus and Farrugia (2016) threw a spotlight on the significance of the UNCRPD, highlighting that the creation of the UNCRPD stemmed from the belief that students should be able to “air views about their education” (p. 20). Therefore, they suggest, students with disabilities should be given the opportunity to express their views about education “through research that involves them as participants” (Callus & Farrugia, 2016, p. 64). The argument that the individual child as well as groups of children have the right to be heard is also stated in Article 12 of the UNCRC. The Committee on the Rights of the Child (2009) clarified that the determination of whether a child is “capable of forming his or her own views” (p. 9) should not be translated as a limitation. Instead, they note, parties should (a) avoid imposing any age limits on the rights of children to express their views, (b) presume they have the capacity to form their own views, (c) acknowledge their ability and right to “express them” rather than expect them to “prove” their “capacity” to do so; (d) obligate ourselves to ensuring children who may encounter difficulties in “making their views heard”; and (e) be sensitive to any “negative consequences of an inconsiderate practice of this right” (p. 9).

Lundy (2007) underscored four aspects of Article 12, emphasizing the imperative that adults should

  1. Provide children the space and opportunity to express their views,
  2. Facilitate their ability to express their views,
  3. Listen to what children have to say, and
  4. As appropriate, act upon their views.

When asked to provide an explanation of my approach in terms of where the students involved in this study fell on the continuum of student voice, Lundy’s model caught my attention. The realization that many of the students with whom I spoke admitted they had never been asked to talk about their school experiences took me back to my experiences as a special education teacher 20 years earlier. Why did my students elect to vent their frustrations and celebrate their successes in my classroom? What was different in terms of each of these four elements? My classroom provided a non-threatening space where students could freely express their views without fear of reprisal or judgment from their audience about what they had to say and how they chose to express their views. We all served as a captive audience, a congregation of listeners with choral responses of agreement and encouragement to tell it like it is. The power of my experiences as a special education classroom teacher and administrator as well as those of the students at both high schools existed in the knowledge and assurance that their views would be given due weight and acted upon whenever possible.

In 2008, Hart acknowledged that the ladder metaphor he advanced in 1992 to represent various levels of student participation was “unfortunate” because it implied “a necessary sequence to children’s developing competencies” (p. 23) and suggested that the “higher rungs of the ladder” were “superior to the ones beneath” (p. 24). He called for new models to emerge. In the case of student participation, Lundy (2018) revisited and reevaluated her position on tokenism, Hart’s third form of nonparticipation, particularly when the views of children in terms of a collective group were being sought. She referred to individuals who avoid including students with disabilities in student voice initiatives, influenced by “generally accepted assumptions” about their “lack of capacity” (p. 342) and the perceived inherent challenges involved. To counteract such hesitancies, she argued that much can be accomplished by incorporating these students into the conversation: “Children’s capacity to exercise and influence can occur even when children are allowed in at ‘low entry points’” (p. 346).

Let’s Reconsider Our Approach

Messiou (2019) contended that “inclusion and student voice are interconnected ideas, inclusion referring to the presence, participation and achievement of all learners” (p. 769). As a community of student voice researchers, my position of how we might move forward mirrors the argument advanced by Parry et al., (2010) who called for communities to ponder the following.

“[H]ow do we change so that more people can participate?” Inclusion does not mean joining in on other people’s terms but it does mean that every new challenge to our idea of inclusivity is met with a positive response; it means the process of change has to be valued by everyone and is seen to enrich the value of everyone involved. (p. 2)

If our intentions are to truly be inclusive, the voices and views of those who tend to be excluded need to be pursued by mainstream student voice researchers and advocates, given legitimacy, and placed in the center of the student voice narrative that currently exists. Within the current climate and culture in which we live, nothing less will suffice.


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